Withdrawal Agreement Protocol On Northern Ireland

Article 1, paragraph 3 of the Northern Ireland Protocol sets out its objectives: the “backstop” would have required northern Ireland to remain in certain aspects of the internal market until an alternative agreement between the EU and the UK was reached. The proposal also provided that the UK as a whole would have a common customs territory with the EU until a solution was found to avoid the need for customs controls in the UK (between Northern Ireland and Great Britain). The “backstop” element was that if the UK and the EU did not agree on another agreement, for example on a trade agreement between the UK and the EU at the end of the transition period, the agreement could continue to apply indefinitely. Negotiators from the United Kingdom and the European Union agreed on the principle of a new protocol on Ireland and Northern Ireland and on political declaration. The Republic of Ireland is the second highest gross domestic product per capita in the EU after Luxembourg, thanks to a favourable corporate tax system and membership of the European single market. [12] About 85% of Ireland`s freight exports worldwide are from ports in the UK, about half of which are destined for the UK, while half continue to the EU via Dover and Calais. [13] The UK`s use as a “land bridge” is rapid (it takes 10.5 hours for the Dublin-Holyhead-Dover-Calais route), but[14] could be compromised by customs checks in Wales and Calais in a Brexit without agreement. Indeed, in the absence of trade agreements, the trade relationship between the United Kingdom and the EU (including the Republic) would amount to membership of the World Trade Organization (WTO). They stipulate that the same tariffs and tariffs must be applied indiscriminately among all WTO members (the most favoured nation`s criterion), unless some members have a trade agreement. [15] This principle would also apply to trade across land borders in Ireland in the absence of a trade agreement.

Early in the negotiations leading up to the UK`s withdrawal from the EU, the UK and the EU recognised the unique situation of Ireland and Northern Ireland.